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Essay On Fire Service Day 2015

The Mumbai Fire Brigade is the fire brigade serving the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is responsible for the provision of fire protection as well as responding to building collapses, drownings, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees and taking appropriate action during natural disasters.

History[edit]

Fire protection in Bombay began in 1777, when locals were allotted Rs. 4 per day for handling carts and horse chariots which were used to extinguish fires.[3] The Bombay fire brigade started as a part-time police function in 1855. A regular fire service with horse-drawn fire engines began under control of the Commissioner of Police. In 1864, a commission was appointed to report the organisation of fire service and a police officer was sent to England to qualify himself as captain of the fire brigade. Bombay Fire Brigade was placed jointly under the control of the Government and the Municipality in 1865. Fire protection became the responsibility of the Municipality on 1 April 1887.[4]

In 1888 Bombay Municipal Corporation Act was enacted and protection of life and properties from fire become the duty of the Corporation. W. Nicholls of the London Fire Brigade was appointed Chief Officer in 1890.[3] The first motorized fire engine was commissioned in 1907. Also in 1907, the Bombay Salvage Corporation was formed, responsible for fire protection and salvage operations. Street fire alarms were installed in 1913. The Brigade was motorised by replacing horse-drawn steam engines in 1920, and the Bombay fire brigade started ambulance service using six donated ambulances.[5][6]

In 1948, M.G. Pradhan was appointed Chief Fire Officer, the first Indian to hold this position. Since then, the Brigade has been completely manned and controlled by Indians.[3]

Jurisdiction & duties[edit]

The role and jurisdiction of the Brigade are defined by the Maharashtra Fire Prevention and Life Safety Measures Act (2006).[7] Under the Act, the jurisdiction is set as the limits of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Its role includes:

  • Promote fire safety
  • Prepare for fighting fires and protecting people and property from fires
  • Rescuing people from traffic accidents
  • Dealing with other specific emergencies, such as flooding or terrorist attack
  • Any activity that assists in meeting their statutory duties

Organisation[edit]

The Mumbai Fire Brigade has its city headquarters in Byculla and suburban headquarters in Marol. It is headed by the Chief Fire Officer. For operational purposes, Mumbai is divided into six regions, each with its own regional command centre. Regions are further divided into divisions and subdivisions. Each subdivision has multiple fire stations.

Each regional command centre is headed by a Deputy Chief Fire Officer; a division is in the charge of a Divisional Fire Officer; a subdivision is headed by an Asst-Divisional Fire Officer; and each fire station is managed by a Station Officer.

Duty hours[edit]

Initially, the Mumbai Fire brigade staff were on duty 24 hours per day and were provided quarters at the fire station. In 1991, 24-hour duty was limited to officers above Station Officer. Firefighters and Assistant Station Officers now work eight-hour shifts. A few rules from the British era such as roll call are still prevalent.

Equipment[edit]

Fire stations are equipped with specialised equipment, such as firefighting and rescue vehicles, Ambulances, breathing apparatus, hydraulic rescue tools, electric chain saws, concrete or steel cutters, chemical protective suits, fire proximity suits, rescue rocket devices, self/rope rescue devices and search cameras.

Motor pump[edit]

The first-call or first responding truck, also known as MP (Motor Pump) in the Mumbai Fire Brigade (MFB), is a truck that is stationed at every fire station in Mumbai. This truck is used for all types of calls, from fire to bird or animal rescue. Currently Mumbai Fire Brigade is using such trucks made by Tata and MAN (since February 2016).

Jumbo Tanker and Water Tanker[edit]

Jumbo Tanker, commonly known as JT in the MFB, is a tanker used for major fires. The capacity of this truck is between 14,000 and 18,000 litres. Currently the MFB is using such trucks made by Mercedes-Benz and MAN.

Water Tanker is a truck just like JT but with less tank capacity, approximately 9,000 litres. These trucks are made by Tata.

Ladder Truck[edit]

Mumbai Fire Brigade uses three types of Ladder Truck: ALP (Aerial Ladder Platform ), TTL (Turntable Ladder), and HP (Hydraulic Platform). They are used for high-rise calls. These trucks are manufactured by Volvo, MAN, and Mercedes-Benz. The ladders are manufactured by Bronto Skylift and Magirus. The tallest ladder in Mumbai (90m) can reach up to the 33rd floor.

Fire Safety Week[edit]

Fire Safety Week is held from 14 to 20 April every year, in honour of the 66 fire-fighters who lost their lives in the Bombay Explosion.[8]

Incidents[edit]

Bombay explosion[edit]

Main article: Bombay Explosion (1944)

On 14 April 1944 the freighter SS Fort Stikine, carrying a mixed cargo of cotton bales, gold and ammunition (including around 1,400 tons of explosives), caught fire and was destroyed in two giant blasts, scattering debris, sinking surrounding ships and setting fire to the surrounding area, killing around 800 people. The Bombay Fire Brigade tried to control the fire under control, at the cost of 66 lives.[9] Preserved in the fire station at Byculla is a Leyland fire engine that took part in fighting the fire.[citation needed]

2008 terrorist attacks[edit]

Main article: 2008 Mumbai attacks

On 26 November 2008, the Mumbai Fire Brigade responded when terrorists attacked multiple targets within the south city centre using automatic weapons, hand grenades and C-4 explosive. The attacks took place in buildings frequented by foreign tourists, including the Taj Mahal Hotel, Hotel Trident, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Leopold Cafe and Bade Miyan Gali. The largest blaze was at the Taj Mahal Hotel, whose upper floors were torched.

With no sprinkler systems or interior standpipes, fire suppression was limited to a master stream attack from aerial devices such as the Bronto Skylift. The attackers targeted firefighters, who remained at their posts atop the aerial platforms and on the ground. Dozens of rescues and removals took place using additional aerial devices. The fire crews surrounded the rescued victims to protect them from gunfire.

The fire brigade battled fires multiple times at the Taj and Oberoi hotels as the terrorists kept setting new blazes while fighting commandos. Fire crews awaited clearance from the commandos before going in.

In the wake of the events, it was revealed that Mumbai's firefighters had poor personal protective equipment. This attack initiated equipment modernisation.

Andheri corporate tower blaze[edit]

On 18 July 2014, a fire broke at around 11 am at the 22-storey Lotus Business Park Building in Andheri (West). The fire destroyed the upper two floors before the Fire Brigade brought it under control. About a dozen out of 30 firemen who had gone inside the building were trapped for hours on the rooftop, and Nitin Ivalekar, a 28-year-old fireman, died due to smoke inhalation.[10][11]

Kalbadevi fire[edit]

The 9 May 2015 Kalbadevi fire, which destroyed the five-storey Gokul Nivas bhavan and killed several firemen[12][13] was one of the worst fires since the 1944 Bombay Docks Explosion.[citation needed] It was a Brigade call.[citation needed]

Metro House fire[edit]

On 2 June 2016, at 4 pm, a major fire broke out at Metro House, which houses Cafe Mondegar, close to the Regal Cinema, at Colaba Causeway, a popular shopping district.[14] There were 50 fire trucks, from every station of South Mumbai, which included jumbo-tanker aerial-ladder platforms, turn-table ladders, and regular fire trucks. The operation continued for almost 2 days, with fire tenders making refill trips.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

  • Telescoping articulated platform

  • Fire truck for small buildings

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"About Maharashtra Fire Services". mahafireservice.gov. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  2. ^Parab, Bhagwan (23 June 2015). "Prabhat Rahangdale new CFO of fire brigade". The Asian Age. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 
  3. ^ abcArdesher, Rashna. "Brave Men in Blue". Godrej Infotech Ltd. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  4. ^"Fire Services"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-03-01. 
  5. ^Bag, Sakti Prasad. Fire Services in India: History, Detection, Protection, Management. Mittal Publications. p. 85. ISBN 81-7099-598-1. 
  6. ^Jain, V. K. (1996). Fire Safety in Building. Taylor & Francis. p. 443. ISBN 9788122410358. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  7. ^"Govt. Resolution No : FFS 2008/CR 181/08/UD 20"(PDF). Government of Maharashtra, Urban Development Department. Archived from the original(PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  8. ^Hatyal, K. R. (10 April 2012). "Appeal Letter". Maharashtra Fire Services. Retrieved 11 August 2015. 
  9. ^Bag, Sakti Prasad. Fire Services in India: History, Detection, Protection, Management. Mittal Publications. p. 87. ISBN 81-7099-598-1. 
  10. ^"Major fire at business park in Mumbai's corporate hub Andheri" (in Hindi). Patrika Group. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  11. ^Kalwar, Pooja (20 July 2014). "Nitin Ivalekar's wife delays funeral, demands compensation in writing". Mid Day. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  12. ^HT Correspondents (10 May 2015). "Mumbai: Kalbadevi building falls after blaze, two firemen killed". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
  13. ^Pandit, Sadaguru; Deshpande, Tanvi (11 May 2015). "Kalbadevi fire: Cash, valuables lie scattered on open ground". Mid Day. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
  14. ^"Metro House fire: Two rescued, 12 fire tenders on spot". The Indian Express. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016. 

External links[edit]

Firefighters Memorial outside the Byculla Headquarters
Mumbai Fire Brigade's Bronto sky lift for sky scrapers


OBJECTIVE

The motto of Fire Services asserts “ WE SERVE TO SAVE.” A translated idea of original motto in Sanskrit that is “ TRANAY SEVA MAHE.”

Based on this motto there are three priority wise objective concepts.

(A)          Primary Objective: SAVING LIFE.

(B)          Secondary Objective: SAVE National and Public PROPERTY.

(C)          Tertiary Objective: Salvage and Preservation.

(A) Primary Objective: SAVING LIFE.

This is the most essential part of Fire Service, which requires personnel to be well trained. In case of fire the SMOKE evolving from fire that is the main culprit for taking toll of life contrary to the fire itself. It is the SMOKE that kills first by asphyxiating.

Fire Service personnel are vigorously trained to withstand HOT and HUMID conditions full of SMOKE as found in fire fighting situations and to search for casualties by following proper SEARCH PROCEDURE methods. Modern technology has given products like PVC, FOAM textiles and furnishings that evolve noxious smoke, which have toxic effect. They are a boon for human comforts but if catch fire they prove as instant killers.

Apart from Fire Service there are disasters, building collapse, drowning rescues etc that require immediate life saving.

(B) Secondary Objective: SAVE National and Public PROPERTY.

Fire and Smoke damage and destroy immense National and Public property. In order to check this loss Fire Service has to keep abreast of latest technological developments in fire-fighting so as to curb and check this damage. There are different wings and training programs teaching practical fireman-ship for mitigating fire loss.

Uttar Pradesh Fire Services takes care to extinguish fire at its seat such that property does not get spoiled or damaged because of water used by the Fire Service for fire fighting.

 (C) Tertiary Objective: Salvage or preservation

Humanitarian services and salvage services. Services like Ambulance service; offering First Aid helping humans’ and animals in distress to safety are provided by Uttar Pradesh Fire Services. At the fire scene a wing is busy in preserving property from fire, smoke and water due to firefighting. They remove un-burnt property away from fire, provide drainage arrangements and do not allow water logging on floors, ventilate etc.


Every Year 14th April is observed as Fire Service Day in India as a part to pay homage to those brave Fire Fighters, who sacrificed their live in line to their duty on 14th April, 1944. Industries observe this day / week as Fire Service day / Week and conducts Training, Drills and Rehearsals to demonstrate the Preparedness to combat emergencies.
The Ship in which accident took place named S S Fort Stikine having capacity of 7000 Tons belonged to Ministry of War and Transport. The ship left Birkinhead – UK on 24th February, 1944. Convey of 20 other ships with cargo for Karachi and Bombay was loaded. The Karachi Cargo Contained RAF Planes, General Stores, Explosives and Ammunitions. Bombay Cargo was 1395 Tons of Explosives and Ammunitions and Service Stores. The ship reached Karachi on 30th March, 1944 where a part of Cargo was discharged, leaving void 2, 86,000 cu. Feet in her hold. The new Cargo loaded was cotton, timber, lubricating oil, resin, sulphur and other combustible material. The ship then left Karachi on 9th April, 1944 and reached Bombay on 9th April, 1944. No explosives or ammunition were off loaded until the ship has been alongside for 24 hours.
ACCORDING TO THE  BYE LAWS OF B.P.T [ Bombay Port Trust]
  • A Ship carrying explosives is not allowed into docks, but under Rule 88 of the Defense of India Rules, this Bye-Law is suspended in case where Military Officer has given a Certificate of “GRAVE EMERGENCY”. Such a certificate was issued for S S Stikine
The ship was anchored at Victoria Dock Bombay and the Memorable Day, throughout the morning, she was active as cargo hooks swayed a load of commodities from the S S Fort Stikine. Firemen were at Fire Stations as usual shining their brass to keep their fire engines shining.
On 14th April, 1944, at 1400 hrs
A Whiff of smoke noticed from No.: II hold of the ship. Frantic series of short blast of whistles were heard warning of fire board. The ship crew started pouring musky water in the ship hold. Fire Engines from Alexandra Dock and Air Force Squad arrived immediately and started hose streams in smoking hold to control fire spread. The firemen though aware of the dangerous situation, there was no panic. The prompt arrival of the Fire Engines seemed no reason to think that the fire could not be controlled. Soon it became apparent that the firemen were loosing ground. A call was put through to Mumbai Fire Brigade control for Additional appliances. At 14.30 hrs, a large part of Fire Service was on pliers. Total 32 Water Jets came into action pouring gallons of water into ship hold to quench the fire. The Fire was still gained. There was something preventing the water from reaching the seat of fire. The deck head under the firemen’s feet grew hotter and hotter. The water stream played over the deck head turned into steam. It was now clear that the fire was out of control. Slides and Deck became CHERRY RED, blenching thick black and brown smoke. Flames shot mast high but sound never reached firemen’s ear.
1605 Hrs. ~ Ground Rumbled and EXPLOSION,
S S Fort Stikine Blew Up with its gallant firemen and fire engines disappeared from the face of earth. No. of ships destroyed nearby. At one stroke, the key port of Bombay was taken out of war.
1636 Hrs. ~ SECOND EXPLOSION,
Explosion was heard miles away. Entire Dock upto few kms was in flames. 14 other ships standing aside destroyed. 336 people burned. All nearby/around people and animals died. Many Fire Fighters died or disabled. The Number of persons who died in the Explosion will never be known and figures are conflicting. NFPA Handbook listed 731 dead whereas other sources said 1500 Died/Missing and more than 3000 Injured.
Couple of months after the Disaster, 3083 people had requested claims for damage by Fire or Explosion to their property. 11735 had put up Claim for uninsured properties. 466 Uninsured people claimed as compensation for personal injuries.
The Compensation paid out 850 Lakhs as damage by fire/explosion. Marine Insurance was 150 Lakhs. Paid for uninsured properties was 300 lakhs and personal injuries was 13 lakhs with miscellaneous policies of 4.5 lakhs.
Government of India declared this day of 14th April every year to be observed as Fire Service Day in recognition of the valor and sacrifice of the courageous FIRE FIGHTERS who laid down their lives in Line of their Duty.
Industries conduct Fire Fighting Training Mock Drills, Fire Drills or Emergency Drills every year on this day to pay homage and create awareness and knowledge about handling emergencies in their fellow workers.

·       Fire Service observes Fire Service Day on 14th April every year to commemorate the Fire Service Personnel who laid down their lives during public service. The message of fire prevention is carried to the public by means of demonstrations, film shows, Cultural Programs, distribution of pamphlets, Seminar and lectures. The help of mass media like films, television, Radio and newspapers plays an important role in the successful execution of FIRE PREVENTION MESSAGE. Fire Service Department also organizes lectures/ demonstrations in schools and colleges and in Places where the management requests on fire prevention. Fire prevention education plays a VITAL role in saving the lives and property of people.

·       



WHAT IS FIRE

           FIRE TRIANGLE

Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur:
FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become vapor or gas before they burn.
OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen.
HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.


CHEMICAL REACTION - A chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this rapid oxidation/burning takes place.
Take any one of these factors away, and the fire cannot occur or will be extinguished if it was already burning.

EXPLOSION: It is a FIRE of extreme high speed. In case of Fire we see flames, smoke; feel heat but due to high-speed energy release in case of explosion sound is an added factor.  

HOW FIRES ARE CLASSIFIED  

CLASS A

Ordinary combustibles or fibrous carbonaceous material, such as wood, paper, clothe, rubber and some plastics.  

CLASS B

Flammable or combustible liquids, such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane LPG.  

CLASS C

Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes and power tools.  

CLASS D

Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium these metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care.  


                HOW TO PREVENT FIRES

Class A — Ordinary combustibles:
Keep storage and working areas free of trash Place oily rags in covered containers. Maintain Good Housekeeping.

Class B — Flammable liquids or gases:
Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined space, especially in the presence of an open flame such as a candle, furnace or heater.
Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment while it's hot.
Keep flammable liquids stored in tightly closed, self-closing, spill-proof containers. Pour from storage drums only what you need.
Store flammable liquids away from spark-producing sources.
Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas.

Class C — Electrical equipment:
Look for old wiring, worn insulation and broken electrical fittings. Report any hazardous condition to your supervisor.
Prevent motors from overheating by keeping them clean and in good working order. A spark from a rough-running motor can ignite the oil and dust in it.
Utility lights should always have some type of wire guard over them. Heat from an uncovered light bulb can easily ignite ordinary combustibles.
Don't misuse fuses. Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit.
Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange. Unusual odors can be the first sign of fire.
Don't overload wall outlets. Two outlets should have not more than two plugs.

Class D — Flammable metals:
Flammable metals such as magnesium and titanium generally take a very hot heat source to ignite; however, once ignited are difficult to extinguish as the burning reaction produces sufficient oxygen to support combustion, even under water.
In some cases, covering the burning metal with sand can help contain the heat and sparks from the reaction.  Dry powder extinguisher/TRULY DRY sand in a bucket or box) is quite effective.

WHEN NOT TO FIGHT A FIRE

Never fight a fire: -

  • If the fire is spreading beyond the spot where it started
     
  • If you can't fight the fire with your back to an escape exit
     
  • If the fire can block your only escape
     
  • If you don't have proper and adequate fire-fighting equipment or agent/extinguishing media.

In any of the above situations,

MOREVER

DON 'T FIGHT THE FIRE YOURSELF
CALL FOR HELP.

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HOW TO EXTINGUISH FIRES IN INCIPIENT STAGE.

Class A - Extinguish ordinary combustibles by cooling the material below its ignition temperature and soaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition.

Use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose (ABC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers. DO NOT USE carbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers on Class A fires.

Class B - Extinguish flammable liquids, greases or gases by removing the oxygen, preventing the vapors from reaching the ignition source or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction.

Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, and halon extinguishers may be used to fight Class B fires.

Class C - Extinguish energized electrical equipment by using an extinguishing agent that is not capable of conducting electrical currents.

Carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical and halon* fire extinguishers may be used to fight Class C fires. DO NOT USE water extinguishers on energized electrical equipment.

Multipurpose (ABC-rated) chemical extinguishers leave a residue that can harm sensitive equipment, such as computers and other electronic equipment. Carbon dioxide or halon extinguishers are preferred in these instances because they leave very little residue.

Class D - Extinguish combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium with dry powder extinguishing agents specially designated for the material involved.
In most cases, they absorb the heat from the material, cooling it below its ignition temperature.
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HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Remember the acronym, "P.A.S.S."

P

...Pull the Pin.

A

...Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flames.

 

S

...Squeeze the trigger while holding the extinguisher upright.

 

S

...Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the area of the fire with the extinguishing agent.  

REMEMBER:

  • Should your path of escape be threatened
     
  • Should the extinguisher run out of agent
     
  • Should the extinguisher prove to be ineffective
     
  • Should you no longer be able to safely fight the fire

...THEN LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY!  

  • An Extinguisher is a "First Aid" Tool
    Don't expect it to control a big fire:
     
    • For small, isolated fires only
      If the fire is too big don't try to fight it
       
    • Short duration
      Depending on the size, 10 seconds to 30 seconds of spray
       
    • Short range
      Depending on the size/type, 5-10 feet
       
  • Fire ahead; escape behind
    Keep yourself between the fire and your exit.
     
  • Spare extinguisher & observer
    Have an observer with a spare extinguisher to back you up
     
  • If in doubt, bail out!
    If you're not sure if you can fight the fire, you can't.

------------------------------------------------------------

HOW TO USE AN EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN

  • A written, up-to-date Emergency Action Plan for your workplace is essential in case of emergency. Make sure you read and understand your department's Emergency Action and Fire Drill Plan.
  • The plan should contain information about evacuation from the facility, including who is in charge of it.
  • Primary and secondary escape routes should be outlined for every area of the building. Since stairways are the primary escape route in multiple story buildings, they should not be used for any kind of storage.
  • Lifts should NEVER be used in fire emergencies and kept grounded.
  • Emergency Action Leaders should be assigned specific duties, such as verifying that all workers/employees/students/faculty/staff have evacuated.
  • Pre-fire planning must clearly show the locations of the workstations of the disabled workers. Disabled workers and those with known medical problems such as heart disease or epilepsy should EACH be assigned an Emergency Action Leader to guide them to safety.
    All workers who might need assistance during a fire should be identified during planning.
  • Fire drills should be scheduled to test the Emergency Action Plan. Let the drill be used to find problems before a fire happens, then make the necessary changes.
  • Emergency Action Plans must be pasted on the inside of room/hall doors.
    HOW TO EVACUATE A BURNING BUILDING
  • The last one out of the room should not lock the door just close it. Locking the door hinders the fire department's search and rescue efforts.
  • Proceed to the exit as outlined in the Emergency Action Plan. 
  • NEVER use elevators/lifts under any circumstances.
     
  • Stay low to avoid smoke and toxic gases. The best air is close to the floor, so crawl if necessary.
     
  • If possible, cover your mouth and nose with a damp cloth to help you breathe.
     
  • If you work in a building with multiple stories, a stairway will be your primary escape route. Most enclosed stairwells in buildings over two stories are "rated" enclosures and will provide you a safe means of exit; don't panic descend stairs slowly and carefully.
     
  • Once in the stairwell, proceed down to the first floor. Never go up.
     
  • Once outside the building, report to a predetermined ASSEMBLY area so that a head count can be taken.
     

WHAT TO DO IF TRAPPED IN A BURNING BUILDING

  • If you're trying to escape a fire, never open a closed door without feeling it first. Use the back of your hand to prevent burning your palm. If the door is hot, try another exit. If none exists, seal the cracks around the doors and vents with anything available.
  • If in a dorm room, use wet towels to seal the space under the door and prevent the entry of smoke. Cracks around the door can be sealed with masking tape if necessary.
  • If trapped, look for a nearby phone and call the fire department, giving them your exact location.
  • If breathing is difficult, try to ventilate the room, but don't wait for an emergency to discover that window can't be opened.
  • If on an upper floor and your window is of a type that CANNOT be opened, DON 'T break it out- you'll be raining glass down on rescuers and people exiting the building. If you can't contact the fire department by phone, wave for attention at the window. Don't panic.


    WHAT TO DO IF SOMEONE CATCHES ON FIRE

    If you should catch on fire:

    STOP - where you are

    DROP - to the floor

    ROLL - around on the floor

    This will smother the flames, possibly saving your life.

    Just remember to STOP, DROP and ROLL.

    If a co-worker catches on fire, smother flames by grabbing a blanket or rug and wrapping them up in it. That could save them from serious burns or even death.

    SUMMARY

    KNOWLEDGE - AWARENESS - PREPARATION

    These are your keys to prevent fires and survive from them wherever they occur.

     

DO YOU KNOW

 

·       When Fire starts smoke SPREADS and KILLS people.

·       When sofas, foam, upholstery, PVC burn TOXIC smoke evolves that KILLS INSTANTLY in less than two minutes.

·       If worn clothes catch fire you should STOP, DROP and ROLL.

·       If you smell cooking gas it must be leaking. Ventilate at floor level because LPG is HEAVIER than air.

·       Smoke is hot and lighter than air and rises up. In case of fire CRAWL on floor for cool air to stop suffocation.

·       If fire outbreaks in your living room you must leave the room immediately and close the door BEHIND you.

·       In a fire outbreak SMOKE, PANIC, SHOCK and SUFFOCATION are the main killers. Do not shout or run. This tends to cause panic and asphyxiation.

·       That you must not use LIFTS in case of fire, as it is the pathway for smoke, embers, and flame.

·       Maximum numbers of fires that occur in our state are in RURAL areas.

·       Most URBAN fires are due to electricity or LPG.

·       Simplest and most useful fire-fighting equipment for a home is a BLANKET and a BUCKET full of WATER.

·       Once a fire takes hold, there is only one completely safe place to be-OUTSIDE. If trapped inside getting out is the priority.

·       In unventilated fires CARBON MONOXIDE evolves that kills instantly. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless and tasteless.

·       You must COMMUNICATE the incident once you are out in open that is TOTAL SAFETY. Call the Fire Service. The services of the Fire Brigade are provided FREE OF COST DIAL 101irrespective of the size of the fire.

·       Emergency number for calling Fire101and Police100 is FREE OF COST, even when you use the P.C.O.

Help the Firemen to Help You

Remember, FIREMAN IS YOUR FRIEND.

Give way to fire engines to enable them to reach at the incident quickly.

Allow them to use your telephone to communicate with the control room.

Don’t park your cars/truck close to fire hydrants/underground static water tanks.

Guide firemen to water sources i.e. Tube wells, pounds, static tanks etc. in case of fire. 

Fire Precautions in High Rise Buildings

The threat of fire in High Rise Buildings is constant and if adequate precautionary measures are not taken, the consequences can be grave. Therefore, observe the following basic precautions.

Do’s

Ensure Good House Keeping.

Always use ashtrays while smoking and deposit-smoked butts in them after extinguishing. Smoke in areas especially designated for smoking.

All receptacles for waste should be emptied at regular intervals. Faculty electrical appliances should be repaired/replaced immediately.

Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit. Welding /Cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision.

Keep smoke/Fire Check doors closed.

Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.

Fire Rescue drills should be carried out at regular intervals.

Impart elementary fire fighting training to occupants.

Emergency organization must be setup.                                     

Fire Precautions in Residential Area.

Do’s

Don’ts

  • Keep your house neat and clean.
  • Keep matches, lighters and crackers away from children. Handle crackers with care,
  • Use metal ashtrays while smoking to dispose off matches, used cigarettes and bidis.
  • Papers, clothes and flammable liquids should be kept away from heaters/stoves/open choolahs.
  • Keep the escape routes/staircases free of any obstructions.
  • Use only one electrical appliance in one socket.
  • Keep LPG stoves on raised platform never on the floor.
  • Turn off the cylinder valve and burned knob of the gas stove after cooking.
  • Keep a bucket of water handy while using fireworks. In case of Burn Injuries Due to Fire, Pour Water Over Burn Till Pain Subsides.
  • Don’t meddle with electrical fixtures like plugs, wires switches and sockets.
  • Don’t leave spray cans on or near heaters or in direct sunlight they could explode.
  • Don’t throw matches, cigarette ends or pipe ash into waste pipe baskets.
  • Don’t place oil lamps, agarbattis or candles on the floor or near combustible material.
  • Don’t wear loose; flowing clothes while cooking specially avoid synthetic clothing.
  • Don’t keep crackers in you pocket or use fireworks inside the house.
  • Never light fireworks under confinement in a metal container.
  • Never light flowerpot (anar) while holding it.
  • Never reach for any article over a fire.
  • Don’t refill a burning stove. And never leave open fire unattended

Fire Safety Precautions Against Electricity

About 60% fires are of electric origin on account of electric short circuit, overheating, overloading, use or nonstandard appliances, illegal tapping of electrical wires, improper electrical wiring, carelessness and ignorance etc.

Do’s                                                                      

Use I.S.I. certified appliances.

  • Use good quality fuses of correct rating, miniature circuit breakers and earth leakage circuit breakers.
  • Use one socket for one appliance.
  • Switch off the electric supply of the fire affected areas.
  • Fuses and switches should be mounted on metallic cubicles for greater safety against fire.
  • Replace broken plugs and switches.
  • Keep the electrical wires away from hot and wet surface.
  • Switch off appliance after use and remove the plug from the socket.
  • Switch off he ‘Main’ switch when leaving home for a long duration. Don’t use substandard fixtures, appliances.
  • Never have temporary or naked joints on wiring.
  • Don’t lay wires under carpets, mats or doorways. They get crushed, resulting in short circuiting.
  • Don’t allow appliances cords to dangle.
  • Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket

Don’ts

  • Don’t use substandard fixtures, appliances.
  • Never have temporary or naked joints on wiring.
  • Don’t lay wires under carpets, mats or doorways. They get crushed, resulting in short circuiting.
  • Don’t lay wires under carpets, mats or doorways. They get crushed, resulting in short circuiting.
  • Don’t allow appliances cords to dangle.
  • Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket

Fire Safety in Respect of Temporary Structures/Pandals during public/private functions.

  • The height of the ceiling of the pandal should not be less than 3 meters.
  • No synthetic materials or synthetic ropes should be used in such structures.
  • Margins of at least 3 meters should be kept on all sides-away from any preexisting walls or buildings.
  • No structure should be erected underneath any live electrical line.
  • Structure should be erected reasonably away from railway lines; electric substations, furnaces or other hazardous places and a minimum distance of 15 meters should be maintained.
  • Exits on all sides of the pandal shall be kept sufficiently wide (minimum 1.5 meters).
  • There should be provision for stand by emergency light. First-aid fire extinguishers or water buckets must be installed at strategic points inside and outside of the pandal.
  • No combustible material likes wood shavings; straw, flammable and explosive chemicals should be permitted to be stored in the vicinity or inside the pandal.
  • No fireworks display /open flames of any kind should be permitted close to the temporary structure/pandal.
  • Kitchen must be segregated by providing separation walls of noncombustible material (G.I. Sheets) from the remaining area of the temporary structure.

·  The public should ensure that the auditorium/stadiums, which they are booking for various functions are having valid No Objection certificate from fire department. Therefore, such functions be held in those premises only, which are having clearance from fire service

Fire Protections in Industries

Owing to the rapid growth of industries, complexities of fire risk have increased enormously. Incidents of such fire risk have increased enormously. Incidents of such fires not only result in huge loss of fire and property but also cause dislocation of work, loss of production, unemployment and so many other kinds of suffering, If adequate fire prevention measures are taken the losses can be minimized.

Do’s

Don’ts

  • Store flammable liquids gases, solvents, chemicals in stable racks, correctly labeled.
  • Keep chemicals in cool and dry place away from heat.
  • Where hazardous chemicals are used/stored, ensure adequate ventilation and prohibit smoking.
  • Maintain good house keeping. Ensure cigarettes are extinguished before disposal
  • Use fuses and circuit breakers of correct capacity.
  • Before welding operation, all traces of flammable material must be removed to a safe distance.
  • Welding/Hot work should be carried out under proper fire watch.
  • Keep all machinery clean and lubricate it to avoid friction and overheating.
  • Regular fire drills should be carried out.
  • Don’t smoke in prohibited areas.
  • Don’t place obstruction in means of escape.
  • Don’t use damaged cords and avoid temporary connections.
  • Don’t plug to many electrical appliances in one socket

Fire Precautions for Children

Children are our most valued possessions. They are also among the most vulnerable to accidents and fire. The following safety hints shall be borne in mind.

Never leave children alone near an open fire, heater or in kitchen.

Keep matchsticks and cigarette lighters out of reach of children.

Maintain screens on combustion heater or other heating appliance.

Keep electrical plugs and sockets covered so that children do not put wires, metal instruments, and their fingers into it. THEATRE STH

Escape Plan
  • Does every member of your family know your plan for escape in the event of fire?
  • Does everyone know at least two ways out of each room?
  • Have you agreed on a meeting place in front of your home where you will gather to wait for the fire department?
  • Does everyone know to how to get out first, and then call for help from a neighbor's phone or call box?
  • Does everyone understand that they should never, ever go back inside a burning building?
  • Has your family practiced escaping through smoke by getting down on hands and knees and crawling to the nearest exit? (Make sure everyone understands that they should use the exit "free from smoke or flames if they can.)
  • Does everyone in your family know how to stop, drop, and roll on the ground to smother flames if clothes catch fire?

 

HOW YOU CAN SAVE YOURSELF IF AN EARTHQUAKE STRIKES.

·       If you are indoors when tremors begin, do not rush out into the streets.

·       Take cover beneath a strong desk, table or bed. If no heavy furniture is available, stand in a doorway – the frame will provide some protection.

·       Keep away from windows. The vibrations of the shock or movement in the building could shatter them.

·       If you are outdoors when the earthquake strikes, keep away from tall buildings, trees, power lines and any other high structure, which might collapse.

·       Run into an open space as far from any high structure as possible. If here is no such space take cover in a doorway.

·       Do not take refuge in cellars, basements, subways, bridges or underground tunnels. The exit could become blocked by debris, or the tunnels themselves could cave in.

·       If you are in a car, stop the vehicle and dive for the floor, crouching below seat level if possible. If you are in an open area and the earthquake is severe enough to throw you off balance, lie flat.

·       When the initial tremor is over, STAY OUT. Several further tremors may follow the first one at unpredictable intervals. Wait until the rescue teams give the all clear.

·       In the aftermath of a major earthquake, fires may start from overturned burners, LPG cylinders and broken power lines, and pollution could result from shattered sewer lines. Water is likely to be in short supply, too, or cut off entirely because of broken mains.

·       Check your own home for signs of damage, and listen to radio or TV broadcasts for official instructions and warnings.

·       If you have to go outside, keep well away from houses or any other structures, which may have weakened by the shocks. They could collapse without warning.

·       Earthquake gives no clue of its occurrence but it has been established that all pets start behaving abnormally prior to its occurrence, which could be treated as an indication.

 DEEPAVALI  

Deepavali is the festival of lights, fun, frolic and fireworks. Old and young alike love and enjoy the splendor and sparkle of fireworks.              

Deepavali is a cause of concern too, and brings in its wake pain and anguish, injuries and deaths, fires and explosions. Reason the uninhibited use of patakas. Patakas enhance fun and frolic if handled carefully. But in reality they are not. Deepawali could be blissful if the elderly adhere to sensible precautionary measures.

Fire safety and prevention habits and practices can prevent fires from starting and, should they occur, limit their damage.

HELP CELEBRATE SAFELY.

DO'S

(A) IN GENERAL

1.    Different patakas mean different hazards. Read the instructions on each one carefully (by flashlight, never an open flame). Follow all SAFETY PRECAUTIONS issued with the patakas properly.

2.    Buy patakas that are LEGALLY manufactured.

3.    Sparklers need careful handling. Light any pataka ONE AT A TIME PLEASE and don't rush. Keep them at arm's length; and put each spent one into a bucket of water as soon as it is gone out.

4.    Keep the patakas as FAR AWAY from the body as possible.

5.    Keep the fire works on an EVEN SURFACE so that they do not tilt and fall over during operation.