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Mollusques Classification Essay

Louis Agassiz, in full Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, (born May 28, 1807, Motier, Switzerland—died December 14, 1873, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.), Swiss-born American naturalist, geologist, and teacher who made revolutionary contributions to the study of natural science with landmark work on glacier activity and extinct fishes. He achieved lasting fame through his innovative teaching methods, which altered the character of natural science education in the United States.

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Early life

Agassiz was the son of the Protestant pastor of Motier, a village on the shore of Lake Morat, Switzerland. In boyhood he attended the gymnasium in Bienne and later the academy at Lausanne. He entered the universities of Zürich, Heidelberg, and Munich and took at Erlangen the degree of doctor of philosophy and at Munich that of doctor of medicine.

As a youth, he gave some attention to the ways of the brook fish of western Switzerland, but his permanent interest in ichthyology began with his study of an extensive collection of Brazilian fishes, mostly from the Amazon River, which had been collected in 1819 and 1820 by two eminent naturalists at Munich. The classification of those species was begun by one of the collectors in 1826, and when he died the collection was turned over to Agassiz. The work was completed and published in 1829 as Selecta Genera et Species Piscium. The study of fish forms became henceforth the prominent feature of his research. In 1830 he issued a prospectus of a History of the Fresh Water Fishes of Central Europe, printed in parts from 1839 to 1842.

The year 1832 proved the most significant in Agassiz’s early career because it took him first to Paris, then the centre of scientific research, and later to Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he spent many years of fruitful effort. While in Paris he lived the life of an impecunious student in the Latin Quarter, supporting himself and helped at times by the kindly interest of such friends as the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt—who secured for him a professorship at Neuchâtel—and Baron Cuvier, the most eminent ichthyologist of his time.

Already Agassiz had become interested in the rich stores of the extinct fishes of Europe, especially those of Glarus in Switzerland and of Monte Bolca near Verona, of which at that time only a few had been critically studied. As early as 1829 Agassiz planned a comprehensive and critical study of those fossils and spent much time gathering material wherever possible. His epoch-making work, Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, appeared in parts from 1833 to 1843. In it the number of named fossil fishes was raised to more than 1,700, and the ancient seas were made to live again through the descriptions of their inhabitants. The great importance of that fundamental work rests on the impetus it gave to the study of extinct life itself. Turning his attention to other extinct animals found with the fishes, Agassiz published two volumes on the fossil echinoderms of Switzerland in 1838–42 and Études critiques sur les mollusques fossiles in 1841–42.

From 1832 to 1846 he served as professor of natural history at the University of Neuchâtel. In Neuchâtel he acted for a time as his own publisher, and his private residence became a hive of activity with numerous young men assisting him. He now began his Nomenclator Zoologicus, a catalog with references of all the names applied to genera of animals from the beginning of scientific nomenclature, a date since fixed at January 1, 1758.

In 1836 Agassiz began a new line of studies: the movements and effects of the glaciers of Switzerland. Several writers had expressed the opinion that these rivers of ice once had been much more extensive and that the erratic boulders scattered over the region and up to the summit of the Jura Mountains were carried by moving glaciers. On the ice of the Aar Glacier he built a hut, the “Hôtel des Neuchâtelois,” from which he and his associates traced the structure and movements of the ice. In 1840 he published his Études sur les glaciers, in some respects his most important work. In it Agassiz showed that at a geologically recent period Switzerland had been covered by one vast ice sheet. His final conclusion was that “great sheets of ice, resembling those now existing in Greenland, once covered all the countries in which unstratified gravel (boulder drift) is found.”

Activities in the United States

In 1846 Agassiz visited the United States for the general purpose of studying natural history and geology there but more specifically to give a course of lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston. The lectures were followed by another series in Charleston and, later, by both popular and technical lectures in various cities. In 1847 he accepted a professorship of zoology at Harvard University, and in 1850, after his first wife’s death, he married Elizabeth Cabot Cary of Boston, who was well known as a writer and a promoter of women’s education.

In the United States his chief volumes of scientific research were the following: Lake Superior (1850); Contributions to the Natural History of the United States (1857–62), in four quarto volumes, the most notable being on the embryology of turtles; and the Essay on Classification (1859), a brilliant publication, which, however, failed to grasp the fact that zoology was moving away from the doctrine of special creation toward the doctrine of evolution. Besides those extensive contributions there appeared a multitude of short papers on natural history and especially on the fishes of the U.S. His two expeditions of most importance were, first, to Brazil in 1865 and, second, to California in 1871, the latter trip involving both shores of South America. A Journey in Brazil (1868), written by Mrs. Agassiz and himself, gives an account of their experiences. His most important paper on U.S. fishes dealt with the group of viviparous surf fishes of California.

Agassiz was deeply absorbed in his cherished plan of developing at Harvard a comprehensive museum of zoological research. That institution was established in 1859 and ultimately grew into the present Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Agassiz and Darwin

Because Agassiz was one of the most-renowned scientists of his day, it may be asked why his attitude toward English naturalist Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species, published in 1859, was cold and unsympathetic. It is likely that Agassiz’s lifelong view of nature determined his attitude toward the new doctrine of evolution. Although Agassiz was quite familiar with the factual evidence concerning environmental change, variability, and hereditary modification on which Darwin built his arguments, he held that the organic world represented repeated interventions by a supreme being in line with Cuvier’s doctrine of catastrophism. Ordinary physical events on which Darwin relied, such as climatic and geologic change, and even glaciers, could bring about extinctions but not new species. The sequence in the fossil record from simple animals and plants in the ancient, deeper strata to the more complex, recent forms found near the surface represented a progressive development, Agassiz agreed, but those different animals and plants did not arise because of interactions between populations and external environmental changes, as Darwin argued.

Agassiz maintained that since organisms arose by a series of independent and special creations, there could be no hereditary continuity between different types of organisms. Each species of plant and animal was a “thought of God,” and homologies or anatomical similarities were “associations of ideas in the Divine Mind.” Agassiz’s view of nature was historically derived from the thought of Plato, for whom the unseen world had more reality than the world of sense experience. Agassiz, therefore, could not accept Darwin’s conceptual view of nature, in which environmental events could evoke organic change.

Agassiz and race

Agassiz’s belief in special creation also extended to perceptions of race. He posited in his lectures at the Lowell Institute in 1846 that the different races of humanity were created independently, each descending from different ancestors (polygenism) and originating in separate zoological provinces at the beginning of time. Agassiz was heavily influenced by research into human cranial capacity conducted by American anthropologist Samuel George Morton, who possessed an extensive collection of skulls from people of many races. Using measurements taken from many of the skulls’ brain pans, Morton had developed an intellectualhierarchy that placed Caucasians (or whites, who had the largest cranial capacity in Morton’s collection, and thus were presumed to possess the greatest intelligence) at the top and placed Ethiopians (or blacks, who possessed the lowest cranial capacity in Morton’s collection) on the bottom. Agassiz agreed, as he was also affected by his own feelings of pity arising from his initial experiences with African Americans in Philadelphia during his 1846 tour. There he observed the physical traits and behaviour of a small group of African American hotel servants and concluded that they made up a “degraded and degenerate race.”

Agassiz was also an opponent of miscegenation. At a lecture at the Charleston Literary Club in South Carolina in 1847, Agassiz announced that blacks constituted a separate species. In a letter to American abolitionist Samuel Gridley Howe in 1863, Agassiz stated that sexual relations between blacks and whites were “immoral” and “destructive to the social equality.” Coming from a naturalist of Agassiz’s eminence, such views emboldened the resolve of many pro-slavery white Americans, especially in the South.

David Starr JordanThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

THE HUXLEY FILE: Bibliography 1

[To find a publication by author or title, please use the search feature on your web browser.]

This chronological record lists articles, books, and published letters by Thomas Henry Huxley. Professor James Paradis is responsible for most of the good parts of this inventory and for no mistakes.

Abbreviations

AnMNH      Annals and Magazine of Natural History
CECollected Essays
MTGMedical Times and Gazette
PRIProceedings of the Royal Institution
PTRSPhilosophical Transations of the Royal Society
PRSProceedings of the Royal Society
PZSProceedings of the Zoological Society
QJGSQuarterly Journal of the Geological Society
QJMSQuarterly Journal of the Microscopical Society
SMScientific Memoirs

1845

. London Medical Gazette. 1 (1845): 1340; SM 1: 1-3.

1847

. British Association Reports. Part ii (1847): 95; SM 1: 4-5.

1849

On the Anatomy and the Affinities of the Medusæ. PTRS, part ii (1849): 413; SM 1: 9-32.

. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 17 (1849): 30-32; AnMNH 5 (1850):141-43; SM 1: 6-8.

1850

. AnMNH. 6 (1850): 66-67; SM 1: 33-35.

Observations sur la circulation du sang chez les mollusques des genres Firole et Atlante (extraites d'une lettre addressee a M. Milne-Edwards). Annales de ScienceNaturalles 14 (1850): 193-95; SM 1: 36-37.

1851

Observations upon the Anatomy and Physiology of Salpa and Pyrosoma. PTRS, part ii (1851): 567-94; AnMNH 9 (1852): 242-44; SM 1: 38-68.

Remarks upon Appendicularia and Doliolum, Two Genera of the Tunicata. PTRS, part ii (1851): 595-606; SM 1: 69-79.

. AnMNH, ser. 2. 7 (1851): 304-6, 370-74; 8 (1851): 433-42; SM 1:80-95.

Report upon the Researches of Prof. Müller into the Anatomy and Development of the Echinoderms. AnMNH, ser. 2. 8 (1851): 1-19; SM 1: 103-21.

Uber die Sexualorgane der Diphydæ und Physophoridæ. Müller's Archiv fur Anatomie, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicin. (1851): 380-84; SM 1: 122-25.

Lacinularia socialis: A Contribution to the Anatomy and Physiology of the Rotifera. Transactions of the Microscopical Society of London . (n.s.) 1 (1853): 1-19; SM 1: 126-45.

. British Association Reports, part ii (1851): 7778; SM 1: 96-97.

An Account of Researches into the Anatomy of the Hydrostatic Acalephæ. British Association Reports, part ii (1851): 78-80; SM 1: 98-101.

Description of a New Form of Sponge-like Animal. British Association Reports, part ii (1851): 80; SM 1: 102.

1852

. PRI of London 1 (1851-54): 184-89; SM 1: 46-51.

Researches into the Structure of the Ascidians. British Association Reports, part ii (1852): 76-77; SM 1: 194-96.

On the Anatomy and Development of Echinococcus veterinorum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 20 (1852): 110-26; SM 1: 197-215.

1853

And Arthur Henfry, Richard Taylor, eds. SM. London 1853.

On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca as Illustrated by the Anatomy of Certain Heteropoda and Pteropoda Collected During the Voyage of H.M.S. "Rattlesnake" in 1846-50. PTRS, part i. 143 (1853): 29-66; SM ; 1: 52-93.

. [abstract] PRI 1 (1851-54): 298-302; Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 53 (1853): 172-77; SM 1: 216-20.

Observations on the Existence of Cellulose in the Tunic of Ascidians. QJMS 1 (1853): 22-24; SM ; 1: 221-23.

On the Development of the Teeth, and on the Nature and Import of Nasmyth's "Persistent Capsule." QJMS 1 (1853): 149-64; SM 1: 224-41.

. [review] British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review 12 (1853): 285-314; SM 1: 242-78.

Translation: Fragments relating to Philosophical Zoology, selected from the Works of K. E. Von Baer. 'Scientific Memoirs' February and May 1853.

[Anon.] . The Leader, June 25, 1853, pp. 161-167.

1854

And George Busk, translators, Kolliker, Manual of Human Histology, London 1854.

. [An address delivered at St. Martin's Hall] (London 1854). Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 3: 38-65.

. Tenth Edition. [review] British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review 13 (1854): 425-39; SM 5: 1-19.

. PRI 1 (1851-54): 444-46; SM 1: 281-83.

On the Structure and Relation of the Corpuscula Tactus (Tactile Corpuscles or Axile Corpuscles) and the Pacinian Bodies. QJMS 2 (1854): 1-7; SM 1:284-90.

On the Ultimate Structure and Relations of the Malpighian Bodies of the Spleen and of the Tonsillar Follicles. QJMS 2 (1854): 7482; SM 1: 291-99.

On the Vascular System of the Lower Annulosa. British Association Report , part ii (1854): 109; SM 1: 279-80

. [anon. Obituary] Literary Gazette (1854): 1016-18.

Science at Sea. Westminster Review 61 n. s. 5 (1854): 98-119.

[Anon] Schamyl, the Prophet-Warrior of the Caucasus. Westminster Review 61 n.s. 5 (1854): 480-519.

[Anon. reviews] Contemporary Science–Literature in Westminster Review

1855

Contributions to the Anatomy of the Brachiopoda. PRS 7 (1854-55): 106-17, 241-42; SM 1: 325-36.

[Anon. reviews] Contemporary Science-Literature in Westminster Review:

    Principles of (General and) Comparative Physiology, by W. B. Carpenter, etc. 63 n.s. 7 (1855): 239-53.

    Elementary Physics, by Robert Hunt, etc. 63 n. s. 7 (1855): 551-63.

    Glaucus; or, the Wonders of the Shore, by Charles Kingsley, etc. 64 n.s. 8 (1855): 240-63.

    Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, by David Brewster, etc. 64 n. s. 9 (1855): 557-75.

    Faraday's Experimental Researches in Electricity, etc. 65 n. s. 9 (1855), 254-71.

. PRI 2 (1854-58): 82-85; SM 1: 300-4.

On Hermaphrodite and Fissiparous Species of Tubicolar Annelidæ (Protula Dysteri). Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 1 (1855): 113-29; SM 1: 337-50.

On the Structure of Noctiluca miliaris. QJMS 3 (1855): 49-54; SM 1: 351-56.

On the Enamel and Dentine of the Teeth. QJMS 3 (1855): 127-30; SM 1: 357-60.

Memoirs on Physalia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 2 (1855): 3-5; Scientific Memoirs 1: 361-62.

On the Anatomy of Diphyes and on the Unity of Composition of the Diphidæ and Physophoridæ.etc. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 2 (1855): 67-69; SM 1: 363-64.

Mollusca.(Anon.) In English Cyclopedia Natural History. Ed., C. Knight, 3 (1855): 855-74.

Tegumentary Organs. In The Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology. Ed., R. B. Todd (1855-56); SM 1: 365-431.

1856

. PRI 2 (1854-58): 187-95; SM 1: 305-14.

. AnMNH 18 (1856).43-54; SM 1: 432-44.

Contemporary Science– Literature.[anon.] Westminster Review. 65 n.s. 9 (1856): 261-71.

Observations on the Structure and Affinities of Himantopterus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 12 (1856): 34-37; SM 1: 445-48.

Further Observations on the Structure of Appendicularia Flabellum (Chamisso). QJM 4 (1856): 181-91; SM 1: 449-60.

Note on the Reproductive Organs of the Cheilostome Polyzoa. QJMS 4 (1856): 191-92; SM 1: 461-62.

Lectures on General Natural History. MTG 12 (1856): 429-32, 481-84, 507-11, 563-67, 618-28; 13 (1856): 27-30, 131-34, 157-60, 278-81, 383-86, 462-63, 537-38, 586-88, 635-38; 14 (1857): 133-35, 181-83, 255-57, 353-55, 505-08, 638-40; 15 (1857): 159-62, 186-89, 238-41, 467-71.

Owen and Rymer Jones on Comparative Anatomy. British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review 35 (1856): 1-27.

1857

Contemporary Science– Literature. [anon.] Westminster Review 67: 279-88.

. PRI 2 (1854-58): 432-37; MTG 15 (1857): 1-2; SM 1: 315-20.

Description of a New Crustacean (Pygocephalus Cooperi Huxley) from the Coal-Measures. QJGS 13 (1857): 363-69; SM 1: 463-70.

On Dysteria a New Genus of Infusoria. QJMS 5 (1857): 78-82; SM 1: 471-75.

Dr. Hannover's Memoir: "Uber die Entwickelung und den Bau des Saugethierzahns." [review] QJMS 5 (1857): 166-71; SM 1: 476-81.

. Philosophical Magazine 14 (1857): 241-60; SM 1: 482-501.

Glaciers and Glacier Theories. [anon.] Westminster Review (n.s.) 11 (1857): 418-44.

On the Structure and Motion of Glaciers. PTRS 147 (1857): 327-46; SM 2: 1-25.

Contributions to J. V Carus, Icones Zootomicæ. Leipzig 1857.

1858

On Cephalaspis and Pteraspis. QJGS 14 (1858): 267-80; SM 1: 502-16.

On the Phenomena of Gemmation. (abstract) PRI 2 (1854-58): 534-38; Silliman's Journal 28 (1859): 206-9; SM 1: 321-24.

Observations on the Genus Pteraspis. British Association Report, part ii (1858): 8283; SM 1: 517-21.

On a New Species of Plesiosaurus (P. Etheridgii) from Street near Glastonbury; with Remarks on the Structure of the Atlas and Axis Vertebræ and of the Cranium in that Genus. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 14 (1858): 281-94; SM 1: 522-37.

. PRS 9 (1857-59): 381-457; AnMNH 3 (1859): 414-39; SM 1: 538-606.

On the Agamic Reproduction and Morphology of Aphis. Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London 22 (1858): 193-220.221-36; SM 2: 26-80.

Glaciers and Glacier Theories. [anon.] Saturday Review 6 (1858): 58-59.

The Clouds.[anon.] Saturday Review 6 (1858): 207-8.

Chalk, Ancient and Modern. [anon.)] Saturday Review 6 (1858): 500-2.

1859

. London 1859. Abstracted and reviewed in Review of Natural History 7 (1860): 1-11. (sel.)

On Some Points in the Anatomy of Nautilus pompilius. Journal of the Linnaean Societ (Zoology) 3 (1859): 36-44; SM 2: 81-89.

. PRI 3 (1858-62): 151-53; SM 2: 90-93.

On the Stagonolepis Robertsoni (Agassiz) of the Elgin Sandstones; and on the Recently Discovered Footmarks in the Sandstones of Cummingstone. QJGSof London 15 (1859): 440-60; SM 2: 94-119.

. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Societyof London 15 (1859): 642-49; SM 2: 120-29.

On a New Species of Dicynodon (D. Murrayi) from near Colesberg, South Africa; and on the Structure of the Skull in Dicynodonts. QJGS ; 15 (1859): 649-58; SM 2: 130-40.

On Rhamphorhynchus Bucklandi, A Pterosaurian from the Stonesfield Slate. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Societyof London 15 (1859): 658-70; SM 2: 141-56.

On a Fossil Bird and a Fossil Cetacean from New Zealand. QJGS 15 (1859): 670-77; SM 2: 157-65.

On the Dermal Armour of Crocodilus Hastingsiæ. QJGS 15 (1859): 678-80; SM 2: 166-69.

British Fossils. Part l.– On the Anatomy and Affinities of the Genus Pterygotus. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Monograph 1 (1859): 1-36; SM 2: 170-202.

British Fossils. Part 2.– Description of the Species of Pterygotus by J. W. Salter, F.G.S., A.L.S.,

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Monograph 1 (1859): 37-105; SM 2: 203-62.

On Dasyceps Bucklandi (Labyrinthodon Bucklandi Lloyd). Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (1859): 52-56; SM 2: 263-68.

On a Fragment of a Lower Jaw of a Large Labyrinthodont from Cubbington. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (1859): 56-57; SM 2: 269-70.

Observations on the Development of Some Parts of the Skeleton of Fishes. QJMS 7 (1859): 33-46; SM 2: 271-85.

The Government School of Mines. The Builder 22 (Jan. 1859).

. [anon.] The Times (26 Dec. 1859); CE 2: 1-21.

. Macmillan's Magazine 1 (1859): 142-48.

. The Builder 17 (Jan. 15,1859): 35-36.

Structure of Glaciers. [anon.] Saturday Review 7 (1859): 333-35.

The Theory of Glaciers. [anon.] Saturday Review 8 (1859): 80-81.

1860

On the Dermal Armour of Jacare and Caiman, with Notes on the Specific and Generic Characters of Recent Crocodilia. Journal of the Linnaean Society (Zoology) 4 (1860): 1-28; SM 2: 286-312.

. PRI 3 (1858-62): 195-200; AnMNH 5 (1860): 344-46; SM 2: 388-94.

. QJMS ; 8 (1860): 250-54; SM 2: 395-99.

On the Nature of the Earliest Stages of the Development of Animals. PRI 3 (1858-62): 315-17; SM ; 2: 400-2.

. [anon.] Westminster Review 17 (n.s.) (1860): 541-70; CE 2: 22-79.

On the Study of Zoology. Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews (1860); reprinted as . CE 8: 196-228.

The Glaciers of the Alps.[anon.] Saturday Review 10 (1860): 81-83.

1861

On a New Species of Macrauchenia (M. boliviensis). QJGS 17 (1861): 73-84; SM 2: 403-16.

On Pteraspis dunensis (Archæoteuthis dunensis. Roemer). QJGS 17 (1861): 163-66; SM 2: 417-20.

Preliminary Essay upon the Systematic Arrangement of the Fishes of the Devonian Epoch. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom: Figures and Descriptions Illustrative of British Organic Remains (1861); SM 2: 421-60.

Glyptolæmus Kinnairdi. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom: Figures and Descriptions Illustrative of British Organic Remains (1861): 41-46; SM 2: 461-66.

Phaneropleuron Andersoni. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom: Figures and Descriptions Illustrative of British Organic Remains (1861): 47-49; SM 2: 467-71.

On the Zoological Relations of Man with the Lower Animals. Natural History Review (n.s.) 1 (1861) 67-84; On the Relations of Man to the Lower Animals. Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature; CE 7; SM 2: 471-92.

. PZS of London. (1861): 247-60; SM 2: 493-508.

. [letters] The Athenaeum (March 30 and Sept. 21, 1861):433, 498.

1862

Anatomy and Development of Pyrosoma. Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London 23 (1862): 193-250; SM 2: 313-87.

. PRI of Great Britain 3 (1858-62): 420-22; MTG 24 (1862): 159-61; Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature; SM 2: 509-11.

. In QJGS 18 (1862), 40-54, and SM 2: 512-29: The Anniversary Address to the Geological Society; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews (London, 1870); CE 8: 272-304.

On New Labyrinthodonts from the Edinburgh Coal-Field. QJGS 18 (1862): 291-96; SM 2: 530-35.

On a Stalk-Eyed Crustacean from the Carboniferous Strata near Paisley. QJGS 18 (1862): 420-22; SM 2: 536-38.

On the Premolar Teeth of Diprotodon, and on a New Species of that Genus. QJGS 18 (1862): 422-27; SM 2: 539-45.

. [letter] MTG (Oct. 25, 1862): 449.

On the Methods and Results of Palæontology. MTG 24 (1862): 36.

1863

. London 1863; CE 7: 1-208.

[Translations: Zeugnisse fur die stellung des menschen in der natur. Braunschweig 1863. La place de l'homme dans la nature. Paris 1868. Prove di fatto intorno al pesto che l'uomo tiene nella natura. Milano 1869. Du singe a l'homme. Paris 1910. Ching chun chih lien. Shanghai 1935. Shizenkai ni okeru ningen no chii. Tokyo 1940.]

London 1863; CE 2: 303-475.

[Translation: Uber unsere kenntniss von den Ursachen der Erscheinungen in der organischen Natur. Braunschweig 1896.]

Description of a New Specimen of Glyptodon Recently Acquired by the Royal College of Surgeons of England. PRS of Londo n 12 (1862-63): 316-26; MTG ; 26 (1863): 705-7, 233-34; SM ; 2: 546-55.

Description of Anthracosaurus Russelli, a New Labyrinthodont from the Lanarkshire Coal-Field. QJGS 19 (1863): 56-68; SM 2: 558-72.

Six Lectures on Classification at the Royal College of Surgeons. MTG 26 (1863):259-62, 285-86, 311-14, 337-39, 363-65, 391-93, 417-19, 443-46, 471-72, 499-500, 527-30, 553-56, 607-10, 633-35.

Lectures on the Vertebrate Skull. MTG 26 (1863): 607-10, 633-35; 27 (1863): 1-6, 57-58, 107-10, 189-92, 371-74, 425-29, 475-78, 529-31, 57-80, 607-9, 633-36, 663-68.

. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London 2 (1863): 265-66; SM 2: 556-57.

1864

. MTG (1864): 153-54, 177-78, 203-04, 229-30, 256-57, 284-85, 312-13, 343-44, 369-70, 398-99, 428-29, 456-57, 486-87, 509-10, 537-38, 564-65, 595-96, 617-18, 647-48, 671-72.

Professor Huxley's Lectures on "The Structure and Classification of the Mammalia." Reader 3 (1864): 266-68.

. London 1864. (sel.)

. The Natural History Review (n.s.) 4 (1864): 429-46; SM 2: 573-90.

On the Angwantibo (Arctocebus calabarensis. Gray) of Old Calabar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1864): 314-45; SM 2: 591-612.

On the Cetacean Fossils termed "Ziphius" by Cuvier, with a Notice of a New Species (Belemnoziphius compressus) from the Red Crag. QJGS 20 (1864): 388-96; SM 3: 1-10.

On the Structure of the Belemnitidæ; with a Description of a More Complete Specimen of "Belemnites" than Any Hitherto Known and an Account of a New Genus of Belemnitidæ "Xiphoteuthis." Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom: Figures and Descriptions Illustrative of British Organic Remains. Monograph 2 (1864); SM 3: 11-36.

An Elementary Atlas of Comparative Osteology. Huxley and Hawkins. London 1864.

[anon.] Natural History Review (n.s.) 4 (1864): 56-80; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews (London 1870); CE 2: 80-106.

Hunterian Lectures on the Structure and Classification of Mammalia. [abstracts] MTG 28 (1864):153-54, 177-78, 203-04, 229-30, 256-57, 284-85, 312-13, 343-44, 369-70, 398-99, 428-29, 456-57, 486-87, 509-10, 537-38, 564-6, 595-96, 617-18, 647-48, 671-72.

Hunterian Lectures on the Structure and Classification of the Mammalia. The Reader 3 (1864): 205-6, 239-40, 266-68, 300-1, 330-31, 364-65, 493-94, 525-26.

. [letter] The Reader 3 ( March 12, 1864): 334-35.

. The Reader 4 (Dec. 31, 1864): 821.

1865

On the Osteology of the Genus Glyptodon. PTRSof London 155 (1865): 31-70; SM 3: 37-84.

On the Structure of the Stomach in Desmodus rufus. PZS (1865): 386-90; SM 3: 85-89.

On a Collection of Vertebrate Fossils from the Panchet Rocks, Ranigunj, Bengal. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India: Palæontologia Indica. Series 4: Indian Protertiary Vertebrata. 1 (1865): 3-24; SM 3: 90-120.

. PRI 4 (1862-66): 461-63; Fortnightly Review 1 (1865): 257-77; CE 7: 209-52; SM 3: 121-24.

Explanatory Preface to the Catalogue of the Palæontological Collection in the Museum of Practical Geology. ed. Etheridge (London 1865); reprinted as Principles and Methods of Palæontology. Smithsonian Reports (1869): 363-88; SM 3: 125-79.

. The Reader 5 (1865): 561-62; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews London 1870; CE 3: 66-75.

1866

. London 1866. (sel.)

[Translations: Uroki elementarnoi fiziologii. St. Petersburg 1867. Dally, Eugene. tr. Lecons de physiologie elementaire. Paris 1869. Duijl, Kornelis Johannes van. Compendium der physiologie, bewerkt naar Huxley, Wundt, Ranke, Hermann en Budge. Nijmegen, 1871. Ucebnik po elementarna fiziologiia ot T.H. Hzkslei . Samokov 1892. Grundzuge der Physiologie. Hamburg 1910.]

British Fossils. Illustrations of the Structure of the Crossopterygian Ganoids. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Decade xii (1866); SM 5 (supplement): 20-67.

. (sel.) In Prehistoric Remains of Caithness by S. Laing. London 1866.

. Fortnightly Review 3 (1866): 626-37; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 1: 18-41.

. MTG 32 (1866): 534-37.

. Pall Mall Gazette 4 (Oct. 31.1866): 3.

To the Editor of the "Spectator." English Leader (Feb. 24.1866).

1867

On Some Remains of Large Dinosaurian Reptiles from the Stormberg Mountains, South Africa. QJG S 23 (1867): 1-6; SM 3: 198-204.

On a New Specimen of Telerpeton Elginense. QJGS 23 (1867): 77-84; SM 3: 205-13.

. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 1 (1867): 60-77; SM 3: 214-30.

On Acanthopholis horridus, a New Reptile from the Chalk-Marl. Geological Magazine. 4 (1867): 65-67; SM 3: 231-34.

On the Classification of Birds; and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of Certain of the Cranial Bones Observable in That Class. PZS of London (1867): 415-72; SM 3: 239-97.

A Course of Twelve Lectures on Ethnology. Royal Institution (1867). Unpublished, edited galley proof of "The Negritos." [HP 33.]

1868

Professor Huxley's Lecture. Spectator 41 (Nov. 21, 1868): 1372

On "Saurosternon Bainii" and "Pristerodon McKayi," Two New Fossil Lacertilian Reptiles from South Africa. Geological Magazine 5 (1868): 201-05; SM 3: 298-302.

On the Animals Which Are Most Nearly Intermediate Between Birds and Reptiles. Geological Magazine 5 (1868): 357-65; AnMNH 2 (1868): 66-75; [abstract] MTG 36 (1868): 184-85; SM 3: 3-13.

On the Form of the Cranium Among the Patagonians and Fuegians, with Some Remarks upon American Crania in General. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 2 (1868): 253-71; SM 3: 314-29.

. QJMS (n.s.) 8 (1868): 203-12; SM 3: 330-39.

. PRS 16 (1868): 243-48; SM 3: 340-45.

On the Classification and Distribution of the Alectoromorphæ and Heteromorphæ. PZS (1868): 294-319; SM 3: 346-73.

. Fortnightly Review 5 (n.s.) (1868): 129-45; [summary] MTG 38 (1869): 248-49; Lay Sermons,. Addresses and Reviews London 1870; CE 1: 130-65.

. Macmillan's Magazine 17 (1868): 367-78; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 3: 76-110.

. Macmillan's Magazine 18 (1868): 396-408; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 8: 1-36.

[Translation: Premieres notions sur les sciences (Appendix: Un morceau de craie. Paris 1880].

. Ibis 4 (1868): 357-61.

Lectures on the Invertebrates at the Royal College of Surgeons. MTG 36 (1868): 151, 208, 235-36, 265-67, 292-93, 320-21, 344-45, 398-99, 450-51, 504-06, 583-85.

Speech at the Prehistoric Congress at Norwich. [summary] MTG 37 (1868): 271.

. Letter to the Commissioners of the Manchester Natural History Society (Jan. 25, 1868).

1869

. London 1869. From The Elements of Comparative Anatomy (1864). (sel.)

to Henry P. Prescott's Strong Drink and Tobacco Smoke. London 1869.

On Hyperodapedon. QJGS 25 (1869): 138-52; SM 3: 374-90.

On a New Labyrinthodont from Bradford. QJGS 25 (1869): 309-11; SM 3: 391-93.

On the Upper Jaw of Megalosaurus. QJGS 25 (1869): 311- 14; SM 3: 394-96.

. QJGS 25 (1869): xxviii-liii - entitled "Anniversary Address of the President"; SM 3: 397-426. (revised in) Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 8: 305-39;

. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (n.s.) 1 (1869): 89-93; SM 3: 427-31.

. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (n.s.) 1 (1869): 218-21; SM 3: 432-35.

On the Representatives of the Malleus and the Incus of the "Mammalia" in the Other "Vertebrata." PZS of London (1869): 391-407; SM 3: 436-53.

. [review] The Academy 1 (1869): 12-14, 40-43

. Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 2: 107-19.

. Macmillan's Magazine 20 (1869): 177-84; CE 3: 111-33.

. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 5 (1869): 653-70; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews. London 1870.

. Nature 1 (1869): 9-11.

Triassic Dinosauria. Nature 1 (1869-70): 23-24; SM 3: 599-600.

1870

Professor Huxley on Political Ethnology-Forefathers and Forerunners of the English People. Pall Mall Gazette (January 1870).

Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews. London 1870.

The Metaphysical Society. 1870.

. The Metaphysical Society, 1870.

On Hypsilophodon Foxii, a New Dinosaurian Form from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. QJGS ; 26 (1870): 3-12; SM 3: 454-64.

. QJGS 26 (1870): 12-31; SM 3: 465-86.

. QJGS 26 (1870): 32-50; SM 3: 487-509.

. QJGS 26 (1870): xxix-lxiv– entitled "Anniversary Address of the President"; SM 3: 510-50. [revised] Nature 1 (1869-70): 437-43.

. Critiques and Addresses; CE 8: 340-88.

. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (n.s.) 2 (1870): 382-84; SM 3: 551-53.

. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (n.s.) 2 (1870): 404-412; SM 3: 564-71.

On the Milk Dentition of Palæothesium magnum. Geological Magazine 7 (1870): 153-55; SM 3: 595-98.

On the Relations of Penicillium, Torula and Bacterium. QJMS (n.s.) 10 (1870): 355-62; SM 3: 601-07.

. Macmillan's Magazine 22 (1870): 69-80; Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews; CE 1: 166-98.

. Contemporary Review 14 (1870): 511 20; Critiques and Addresses; CE 7: 253-70.

. Contemporary Review 16 (1870): 1-15; Critiques and Addresses; CE 3: 374-403.

. Critiques and Addresses; CE 3: 294-302.

On Tobacco Smoking. [summary of Huxley's comments on R. Wilkinson's "Statistics on Tobacco"] MTG 41 (1870): 377.

. Nature 1 (1869-70): 514-15.

. Nature 1 (1869-70): 657-58.

Speech on Vivisection. [summary] Nature 2 (1870): 466.

On the Maxilla of Megalosaurus. Philosophical Magazine 34 (1870): 385-86.

On the Pedigree of the Horse. [summary] PRI of London 6 (1870): 129.

. [letter] Nature 2 (July 1870): 187.

. [letter] Pall Mall Gazette (Jan. 21, 1870).

. [letter] Nature 2 (1870): 473.

Remarks on Mr. Gladstone. Nature 2 (1870): 414-15.

. [letter] Nature 1 (1869-70): 314 .

. Leonard Huxley, ed. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley 1:16-17.

Anniversary Address of the President to the Ethnological Society of London. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (n.s.) 2 (1870): xvi-xxiv; SM 3: 554-63.

Address to the British Association at Liverpool. British Association Report (1871): 1xxiii-lxxxix; [summary] MTG 41 (1870): 344-47; , CE 8: 229-70; SM 3: 572-94.

. The Times (1870).

To the Ratepayers of the Marylebone Division, flysheet

1871

. Contemporary Review (1871); CE 8: 137-61.

Essays Selected from Lay Sermons, .Addresses and Reviews. London 1871.

Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals. London 1871. (See new version under 1881)

[Translations: Handbuch der Anatomie der Wirbelthiere. Breslau 1873. Manuale dell'anatomia degli animali vertebrati. Firenze 1874. Manuale del Anatomia degli Animali Vertebrati. Firenze, 1874. Elements d'anatomie comparee des animaux vertebres. Paris 1875. Grundsuge der Anatomie der Wirbellosen Thiere. Leipzig 1878.]

On a Collection of Fossil Vertebrata, from the Jarrow Colliery, County of Kilkenny, Ireland. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 24 (1871): 351-69 (Read 1866); SM 3: 180-97.

. Good Words 12 (1871): 104-12; Critiques and Addresses.; Coral and coral reefs. Manchester 1871.

. Contemporary Review 18 (1871): 443-76; Critiques and Addresses; CE 2: 120-86.

. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 10 (1871): 525-43; CE 1: 251-89.

. Macmillan's Magazine 24 (1871): 147-60; CE ; 6: 243-87.

. [summary] MTG 42 (1871): 517.

[summary] MTG 42 (1871): 692-93.

Lectures on the Elementary Physiology of Motion, Consciousness and the Senses. [summaries] MTG 43 (1871): 563, 593-94, 650-51, 714-15, 74-45, 802-3.

. [summary.] Nature 4 (1871): 495-96.

. Daily News Review (October 17, 1871).

The Royal School of Mines Times, II (April 18; 71).

1872

British Fossils. Decade XIII, Plate X. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (1872); SM 5: 68.

. Contemporary Review 19 (1872): 23-36; CE 8: 110-36.

Kew Gardens. Times, 3I July I187Z.

1873

Critiques and Addresses. London 1873.

. Contemporary Review 21 (1873): 825-41; 8: 37-68.

. [letter] Nature 8 (1873): 64.

1874

. In Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man (ed. 1874).

On the Structure of the Skull and of the Heart of Menobranchus lateralis. PZS (1874): 186-204; SM ; 4: 1-22.

Note on the Development of the Columella Auris in the Amphibia. Nature 11 (1874-75): 68-69; British Association Report s, part ii (1874): pp. 141-42; SM 4: 23-25.

. Nature 10 (1874): 362-66; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 1: 199-250.

. Nature 9 (1873-74): 337-39; Contemporary Review 23 (1874): 657-79; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 3: 189-234.

. Macmillan's Magazine 30 (1874): 473-85; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 3: 1-37.

Speech at Manchester. [summary] Nature 10 (1874): 455-57.

. Notices of the PRI 7 (1874): 354-57; SM 4: 61-65.

. [letter] The Times (July 8, 1874).

Professor Huxley at Manchester. Nature, 10:455-57.

1875

A Course of Practical Instruction in Elementary Biology . (With H. N. Martin) London 1875. (See also 1888)

[Translations: T. H. Huxley's Leitfaden fur practische biologie. mit bewilligung des verfassers in das Deutsche uabertragen. Stuttgart 1881. Cours elementaire et pratique de biologie. Paris 1884.]

On Stagonolepis Robertsoni, and on the Evolution of the Crocodilia. QJGS 31 (1875): 423-38; SM ; 4: 66-83.

. PRS ; 23 (1875): 127-32; SM ; 4: 26-31.

. Contemporary Review 25 (1875): 639-60; CE 8: 69-109.

Birds. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. 3 (1875): 726-27.

Notes on the Invertebrata. MTG 50 (1875): 491-96, 517-19, 545-47, 571-73, 599-601, 627-29, 655-57, 695-97.

. Nature 12 (1875): 315-16.

On the Bearing of the Distribution of the Portio Dura upon the Morphology of the Skull. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 2 (1876): 348-51; SM 4: 32-34.

Anthropogenie. Academy, 7 (I875):16-18.

1876

. South Kensington Museum (Dec. 16, 1876); American Addresses; CE 3: 262-93; SM 4: 248-64.

On the Classification of the Animal Kingdom. Journal of the Linnaean Society of London (Zoology) 12 (1876): 199-226; (Summary) Nature 11 (1874-75): 101-02; SM 4: 35-60.

. The Metaphysical Society, 1876.

. Address at Buffalo (August 25, 1876); . Address at Nashville (September 7, 1876) in Professor Huxley in America. New York Tribune. Extra. 36 (1876)

University Education. Address at Baltimore (September 12, 1876) in Professor Huxley in America. New York Tribune. Extra. 36 (1876). , CE III

Professor Huxley in America. New York Tribune. Extra. 36 (1876). , CE 4: 46-138.

[Translation: Ho-hsu-li Tien yen lun (T. H. Huxley and Evolution). China 1901. Lectures on evolution : and Autobiography Tokyo : Kenkyusha, 1944)

Contributions to Morphology. Ichthyopsida No. 1. On Ceratodus Forsteri, with Observations on the Classification of Fishes. PZS of London (1876): 24-59; SM 4: 84-124.

On the Position of the Anterior Nasal Apertures in Lepidosiren. PZS of London (1876): 180-81; SM 4: 125-27.

On the Nature of the Craniofacial Apparatus of Petromyzon. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology 10 (1876): 412-29; SM 4: 128-44.

. Macmillan's Magazine 33 (1876): 373-84; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 8: 162-95; SM 4: 145-62.

. Nature 13 (1876): 388-89, 410-12, 429-30, 467-69, 514-16; Nature 14 (1876): 33-34; SM 4: 163-87.

Birds. "Encyclopaedia Britannica"', Nature 13 (I876)::247

. [letter] Times (May 26, 1876).

Professor Huxley on Lord Shaftesbury. Times (26 May 1876).

. Pall Mall Gazette (May 1, 1876): 37.

. Nature 14 (1876): 546-50; American Addresses; CE 3: 235-61.

. Nature 14 (1876): 238-39.

1877

[Translation: Jules Sarazin, trans. Les sciences naturelles et les problemes qu'elles font surgir. Paris 1877]

American Addresse. London 1877.

. London 1877. (sel.)

[Translations: Elements d'anatomie comparee des animaux invertebres. Paris 1877. Grundzuge der Anatomie der wirbellosen Thiere. Leipzig 1878.]

London 1877. (sel.)

[Translation: Lamy, Georges. tr. Physiographie: introduction a l'etude de la nature. Paris 1882.]

The Crocodilian Remains Found in the Elgin Sandstones, with Remarks on the Ichnites of Cummingstone. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Monograph 3 (1877); SM 4: 188-241.

. Nature 15 (1877): 219-24; American Naturalist 11 (1877): 210-21; SM ; 4: 248-64.

Elementary Instruction in Physiology. Nature 16 (1877): 233-34; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; > , CE 3: 294-303.

[Translation: Grundzuge der Physiologie, mit Bewilligung des Verfassers. Hamburg 1891.]

. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 23 (1877): 48-58; CE 3: 404-26.

. The Nineteenth Century 1 (1877): 536-39.

. The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 536-39.

. (Let) Nature 15 (1876-77): 275.

1878

(London. 1878); CE 6: 3-240.

[Translation: Hume. sa vie– sa philosophi. Paris 1880.]

On the Classification and the Distribution of the Crayfishes. PZS (1878): 752-88; SM 4: 275-315.

On a New Arrangement of Lenses for Dissecting Microscopes. Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club 5 (1878-79): 144-45; The President's Address 1, SM 4: 316-18.

Scientific Worthies. XII.– William Harvey. Born April 1.1578. Died June 3.1658. Nature 18 (1878): 417-420.

. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 23 (1878): 169-90; SM 4: 319-44.

. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. 2 (1878): 49-54.

. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. 1 (1878): 679-90.

. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed.1 (1878): 750-71. (sel.)

. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. 8 (1878): 744-51; Science and Culture, and Other Essay; CE 2: 187-226.

Obituary Notices of Fellows Deceased; Karl Ernst von Baer.[anon.] PRS 27 (1878): i-v.

A catalogue of the Cambrian and Silurian fossils in the Museum of practical geology. London 1878.

. Informal Remarks on the Conclusions of Anthropology. Nature 18 (1878): 445-48; SM 4: 265-74.

The President's Address to Quekett Microscopical Club. The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, 5: 144-45 (1878-9); The President's Address 2, SM 4: 316-18.

On the Use of Historical National Names and Scientific Terms. Nature 18 (1878): 479-80.

1879

. London 1879. (sel.) [Entire text at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/palmer.hp/thh/crayfish.htm]

[Translation: Der krebs. Eine einleitung in das studium der zoologie. Leipzig 1881.]

PRS of London 28 (1879): 395-405; SM 4: 345-56.

. The Nineteenth Century 5 (1879): 597-611; CE 6: 288-319; SM 4: 357-73.

On Certain Errors Respecting the Structure of the Heart Attributed to Aristotle. Nature 21 (1879): 1-5; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; SM 4: 380-92.

to Ernst Haeckel's Freedom in Science and Teaching. N.Y. 1879.

. (August 28, 1879); Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley 2: 6-7.

The President's Address to Quekett Microscopical Club. The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, 5: 150-55 (1878-9); SM 4: 374-79.

1880

. London 1880.

[Translation: Introduccion al estudio de la ciencia. Barcelona 1906.]

. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 30 (1879-80): 162-63; Nature 23 (1880): 362; SM 4: 393-94.

. Nature 22 (1880): 1-4; Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 2: 227-43; SM 4: 395-403.

On the Cranial and Dental Characters of the Canidæ.PZS (1880): 238-88; SM 4: 404-56.

. PZS of London (1880): 649-61; SM 4: 457-72.

. Science and Culture, and Other Essays; CE 3: 134-59.

. The Nineteenth Century 7 (1880): 929-40; CE 4: 1-23.

. Nature 23 (1880): 1-3.

1881

. (New version 1881). (sel.)

Science and Culture, and Other Essays (London 1881).

The Herring. Nature 23 (1880-81): 607-13; SM 4: 473-92.

Twenty First Annual Report of the Inspector of Fisheries (England and Wales) (181).

. Nature 24 (1881): 4246; SM 4: 493-507; CE 3:347-73.

. Nature 24 (1881): 452-55; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 4: 24-45; SM 4: 508-19.

[Translation: Les problemes de la geologie et de la paleontologie. Avec une preface de l'auteur pour l'edition française. Paris 1892.]

1882

Address to Artists' Benevolent Institution. (May 13, 1882).

A Contribution to the Pathology of the Epidemic known as the "Salmon Disease". PRS 33 (1882): 381-89; SM 4: 520-28.

On the Respiratory Organs of Apteryx. PZS (1882): 560-69; SM 4: 529-39.

On Saprolegnia in Relation to the Salmon Disease. QJMS uarterly (n.s.) 22 (1882): 311-33; SM 4: 540-62.

. Nature 25 (1881-82): 597; CE 2: 244-47.

Introduction. Science Primer. N. Y. 1882.

. [letter] Nature 25 (1881-82): 241.

Distribution of Awards, Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines. Nature, 26 (1882),

1883

Fish Diseases. International Fisheries Exhibition London 1883.

. Nature 27 (1883): 396-98; CE 3: 160-88.

Contributions to Morphology: Ichthyopsida– No. 2. On the Oviducts of Osmerus; with Remarks on the Relations of the Teleostean with the Ganoid Fishes. PZS (1883): 132-39; SM 4: 563-71.

Oysters and the Oyster Question. English Illustrated Magazine (1883-84): 47-55.112-21; SM 4: 572-605.

Prize Distribution at the Liverpool Institute. Liverpool Mercury, 17 Feb. 1883.

President's Address, Proc. Roy. Soc., 36 (1883):60-73.

. Inaugural Meeting of the Fishery Congress. International Fisheries Exhibition (London 1883).

Evolution, as Illustrated by the Pearly Nautilus. Nature 28 (1883): 187-89; SM 5: 69-79.

. Nature 28 (1883): 187-89; SM 5: 70-79.

. Macmillan's Magazine 48 (1883): 26-41.

State Intervention in Medical Affairs. MTG 67 (1883): 428-29, 436-37.

1884

. The Nineteenth Century 15 (1884): 228-38; CE 3: 323-46.

1883 Address at Finsbury Technical College. Nature (1883-84): 158.

. PRS 36 (1883-84): 60-73; Nature 29 (1883-84): 136-40.

(1884). The Agnostic Annual. London 1894.

. [letter] Times (1884).

[letter]. Nature 30 (1884): 199.

Proposed Fisheries Board. [letter] Times March 1886.

1885

(1885): CE 2: 248-52.

. The Nineteenth Century 18 (1885): 849-60; Essays on Some Controverted Questions (London 1892); CE 4: 139-63.

. PRS 39 (1885): 278-99; Nature 33 (1885-86): 112-19.

Preface to G. B. Howes, An Atlas of Practical Elementary Biology. London 1885.

1886

. The Nineteenth Century 19 (1886): 191-205; Essays on Some Controverted Questions. London 1892; CE 4: 164-200.

. The Nineteenth Century 19 (1886): 346-65.485-506; CE 4: 287-372.

. Fortnightly Review 40 (1886): 788-802; Essays on Some Controverted Questions (London 1892); CE 9: 117-46.

, The Nineteenth Century (1887).

. Pall Mall Gazette (Oct. 31, 1886).

Pall Mall Gazette (October 22, 1886).

The Home-Rule Bill. Standard, 13 Apr. 1886.maica Committee. Pall Mall Gazette (Oct. 31, 1886).

English Literature and the Universities. Pall Mall Gazette, 22 Oct. 1886.

1887

The Queen's Jubilee. Pall Mall Gazette, 13 Jan. 1887

Politics and the Presidency of the Royal Society. [anon.] Nature 37 (1887): 49-51

. [letter] Nature (January 3, 1895):223

. [letter] Times 19 January; 22 Feb. 1887

. Times 21 March 1887; Nature (24 March 1887): 493.

. [letter] Times (March 1887). Nature 35 (1886- 87): 304-05.

. Times (May 2, 1887); Nature 36 (May 3, 1887): 14.

On Free Libraries. Daily Chronicle 8 June 1887.

. Youth's Companion 23 June 1887, 281-2.

. Notes composed at Athenæum Club (July 7.1887). Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley 2: 175-76.

Preliminary Note on the Fossil Remains of a Chelonian Reptile, Ceratochelys Sthenurus, from Lord Howe's Island, Australia. PRS of London 42 (1887): 232-38; Nature 35 (1886-87): 615-17; SM 4: 606-11.

Further Observations upon Hyperodapedon Gordoni. QJGS 43 (1887): 675-94; SM 4: 636-57.

. In The Reign of Queen Victoria by T. H. Ward London 1887; Half- Century of Science. N. Y.1887; CE 1: 42-129.

> (1887). CE ; 3: 427-51.

. The Nineteenth Century 21 (1887): 191-205; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5: 59-89.

. Nineteenth Century 21 (1887): 481-98; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5: 90-125.

. The Nineteenth Century 22 (1887): 625-40 (entitled "Science and the Bishops"); Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5:126-59.

. In The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, by F. Darwin. 2 (London 1887): 179-204.

[Translation: L'evolution et l'origine des especes. Paris 1892.]

Memoradum of Proceedings at a Drawing-Room Meeting for the Promotion of Technical Education Held at the House of E. C. Robins on the Evening of the 5th March 1887. Under the Presidency of Professor Huxley. (London: privately printed, 1887): 39-40.

. The Nineteenth Century 17 (1887): 620-24.

. [letter] Times (Oct. 12, 1887).

.[letter] Times 32: 244 (Nov. 29 and Dec. 1, 1887)

M.P., P.R.S. Nature, 37 (1887):49-50.

1888

. Pall Mall Gazette 48 (Oct. 24.1888): 1-2.

. The Nineteenth Century 23 (1888): 16180; CE 9: 195-236.

. PRS 44 (1888): i-xxiv; CE 2: 253-302.

. Journal of the Linnean Society 24 (1888): 101-24; SM 4: 612-35.

. [letter] Nature (February 9.1888).

and H. N. Martin, , (Macmillan, 1888). (sel.)

1889

[Translation: Les sciences naturelles et les problemes qu'elles font surgir. Paris 1889]

Science Primers. Introductory. London 1889.

. [letter] Pall Mall Gazette (1 Jan. 1889).

. [letter] Pall Mall Gazette (12 Jan. 1889).

Sea Fisheries. Times, 8 Jan. 1889

. The Nineteenth Century 24 (1889): 438-53; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5: 160-91.

. The Nineteenth Century 25 (1889): 169-94; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5: 209-62.

. The Nineteenth Century 25 (1889): 481-504; Essays on Some Controverted Questions ,; CE 5: 263-308.

. The Nineteenth Century 25 (1889): 937-64; Essays on Some Controverted Questions; CE 5: 309-65.

Essays on Some Controverted Questions. London 1892); to Essays on Some Controverted Questions in CE 5: 1-58.

. Nature (July 4.1889).

Mr. Spencer on the Land Question. Times, 12 Nov. 1889.

Political Ethics. Times, 18 Nov. 1889.

The Ownership of the Land. Times 21 Nov. 1889

1890

[Translation: Introduccion al estudio de la ciencia. N. Y. 1890.]

[exchange of letters with Robert Buchanan] The Daily Telegraph ; (Jan. 27, 29, 30, 1890).

in From Handel to Halle: Biographical Sketches with Autobiographies of Professor Huxley and Professor Herkomer. Ed. L. Engel (London 1890); CE 1: 1-17.

: A gift or an art?" for symposium (1890?)

(???) [HP 49.55] n. date

. The Nineteenth Century (Jan. 1890); CE 1:290-335.

. The Nineteenth Century (Feb. 1890); CE 1:336-82.

. The Nineteenth Century (March 1890); CE 9:147-87.

. The Nineteenth Century (May 1890); CE 1: 383-430.

. CE 5: 366-92.

. The Nineteenth Century (July 1890); CE 4: 201-38.

. The Nineteenth Century (November 1890); Collected Essays 7: 271-328.

Dr. Ward. In Wilfred Ward, Thomas Henry Huxley: A Reminiscence.The Nineteenth Century (August 1890): 274-92.

. [letters] The Times (October 9, 1890 and October 11, 1890); Life and Letters of Thomas HenryHuxley 2: 280-281.

Letter on Medical Education. Nature 42 (August 7, 1890): 352-53.

1891

[Translation: Les sciences naturelles et l'education. Paris, 1891.]

. [letter] Yorkshire Herald (April 11, 1891).

. [letter] Pall Mall Gazette (Oct. 22, 1891).

The Revolutionary Spirit Preceding the French Revolution. London 1891.

. [letter] Trade Unionist 9 (June 13, 1891); Pall Mall Gazette (June 19 and 22.1891)

. The Nineteenth Century (June 1891); CE 4: 239-86.

. [letters] TheTimes; CE 9:188-334.

: legal opinions respecting "General" Booth's Acts. CE 9:312-320.

. (October 19, 1891)

. Agnostic Annual, 1892. CE 5:192-208.

1892

[Translations: Les problemes de la geologie et de la paleontologie and Les problemes de la biologie. Paris: Bibliotheque scientifique contemporaine, Paris 1892]

. [letter] Times, 16 Jan. 1892.

. [draft of speech. 1892] Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley 2: 329-30.

. [letters] Times (3 and 11 Feb. 1892).

On Mosaic Cosmogony. [letter] Times (Feb. 3, 1892).

. [letter] Nature (Sept. 1 1892).

Essays upon some Controverted Questions (Macmillan, I892).

. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 52 (1892): 557-71.

Professorial University for London. Times, 7 July, 6 Dec. 1892.

. The Nineteenth Century (1892).

1893

Introductory Letter to T. J. Parker, William Kitchen Parker: a Biographical Sketch (London 1893): xi-xv.

. London 1893; CE 9: 46-116.

. CE 9:1-43.

[Translations: Soziale Essays Weimar : E. Felber, 1897. Tien yen ping lun. Kuang-chou 1924. Tien yen lun. Tai-pei shih 1964. Tien yen lun. Pei-ching 1981]

Collected Essays. London 1893-94.









    .

[Translations: de Varigny. tr. Science et religion. Paris 1893. Allgemeine Einfuhrung in die Naturwissenschaften. Strassburg 1895. Utvecklingslara och gammaltestamentlig tradition. Stockholm 1906. Fang fa yu chieh kuo (Methods and Results). Shanghai 1934.]

[Reprinted: CE. N. Y.: Greenwood Press, 1968.]

. [letters] The Times (Jan. 11 and 12, 1893).

. [letter] Nature (Feb. 2, 1893).

. [letter] The Times (August 28, 1893).

1894

. Nature, 5I (I894):1-3.

. (1894); CE 9: 1-45.

. In The Life of Richard Owen by Rev. Richard Owen. 2 (London 1894): 273-332; SM 4: 658-89.

. Contemporary Review 35 (1894): 1-11.

1895

. Part I. The Nineteenth Century 37 (1895): 527-40.

. [letter]

. [letter] Nature 51 (1895): 223.

Posthumous

The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. ed. Leonard Huxley. 2 vols. London 1900. [Reprint, Hants: Gregg International Publishers, 1969.]

The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. 4 vols. + supplement. ed. Michael Foster and E. Ray Lankester. London 1898-1903.

ed. Henrietta Huxley. London 1907.

T. H. Huxley's Diary of H.M.S. Rattlesnake., ed. J. S. Huxley. London 1935.

Ed., David A. Roos, Neglected Bibliographical Aspects of the Works of Thomas Henry Huxley. J. Soc. Bibliography Natural History (1978): 8 (4): 413-19.

. Draft of agnosticism notes. Unpublished ms. [HP]

. Part II. In Houston Peterson: T. H. Huxley. Prophet of Science (Bibliography 3).

. Unpublished ms.[HP]


THE HUXLEY FILE



§ 1.THH: His Mark§ 2.Voyage of the Rattlesnake§ 3.A Sort of Firm§ 4.Darwin's Bulldog§ 5.Hidden Bond: Evolution§ 6.Frankensteinosaurus§ 7.Bobbing Angels: Human Evolution§ 8.Matter of Life: Protoplasm§ 9.Medusa§ 10.Liberal Education§ 11.Scientific Education§ 12.Unity in Diversity§ 13.Agnosticism§ 14.New Reformation§ 15.Verbal Delusions: The Bible§ 16.Miltonic Hypothesis: Genesis§ 17.Extremely Wonderful Events: Resurrection and Demons§ 18.Emancipation: Gender and Race§ 19.Aryans et al.: Ethnology§ 20.The Good of Mankind§ 21. Jungle Versus Garden